Category Archives: Jesus

A Rebuilt Temple?

One aspect of contemporary apocalyptic doctrine held by many evangelical Christians is the expectation that a “third temple” (counting Herod’s temple as a continuation of the second temple rebuilt in the early Persian period) must and will be built in Jerusalem prior to the apocalypse.  It is but a component of Evangelical Christianity’s theological program that leads to virtually unconditional support of the modern state of Israel. This larger program includes the belief that a restored state of Israel, reuniting the twelve tribes, presages the Second Coming; the claim that the current conflict between Arabs and Israeli’s is but the continuation of strife that traces back to conflict between Isaac and Ishmael, Jacob and Esau in biblical times, a conflict destined to culminate in Armageddon; and the conviction that, because of God’s promise of protection to Abraham (Gen 12:1-3), anyone who opposes Israel risks getting on God’s enemies list.

This expectation that a revitalized Israel will play a central role in the Second Coming of Jesus also helps to explain the support that conservative American Christians express for the United States’ recognition of Jerusalem, defined as the entirety of the modern city, as the capital of the modern state of Israel (see, for example,,, and ttp://  – despite a number of UN resolutions that recognize East Jerusalem (which was countryside in biblical times) as occupied territory. In turn, one can only speculate the Pres. Trump made this decision to recognize Jerusalem and to move the US embassy there, not because of some strategic Middle East policy, but in order to cater to his Evangelical supporters.

In any case, the expectation of a rebuilt temple is dangerous in two significant respects: it excuses, even promotes, injustice toward the Palestinians living under Israeli occupation and it is based on faulty biblical interpretation. Before examining these two claims, I should make clear that I do not agree that criticizing the policies of the modern state of Israel or of its major sponsor, the USA, is tantamount to anti-Semitism or lack of patriotism, respectively. Instead, I believe, the call to seek justice knows no restrictions. Amos reminded Israel that responsibility is inherent in election: “Only you have I known of all the families of the earth, therefore I will visit against you all your perversions” (Amos 3:2, my trans.).

The first claim, namely, that the constellation of expectations that include a rebuilt Temple in Jerusalem perpetuates injustice toward Palestinians, is almost self-evident. During the British Mandate for the Levant following WWI, the British essentially promised both the Jews and the Palestinians a homeland in the Levant one day (see the Balfour Declaration). The Holocaust shocked and embarrassed the western world. Indifference and incredulity permitted the West essentially to disregard Hitler’s program for addressing “the Jewish problem.” After WWII, however, when the costs of Western inaction became fully known, the international community acted to make amends, establishing the modern state of Israel. It was almost as if the world said to Jews, “We must make up for our failure. Here, we will give you a country.” Meanwhile, to the Palestinians living in that country, the international community essentially said, “We are going to make amends to the Jews for our shortcomings. It will require sacrifice. We have good news! We are going to let you make that sacrifice! Congratulations!”  In the series of brief “wars” since, Israel has seized the West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Gaza strip, among other smaller bits of geography.  Despite international law and contrary to a number of UN resolutions which recognize these properties, including East Jerusalem, as occupied territory, Israel continues to build Jewish settlements, erect fences, destroy structures, and seize ground in these regions. The US advocated war against Saddam Hussein for such violations of UN resolutions; yet, it turns it back on Israeli obstinacy. Meanwhile, the US, in particular, expects Palestinians to be grateful for the opportunity to contribute ancestral estates to the welfare of Jewish immigrants.

Furthermore, the idea that a third temple will be built in Jerusalem as a harbinger of the second coming arises from convoluted readings of texts like Matt 24:15; Dan 9:26-27; 2 Thess 2:3-4; and Ezek 40- 48 in the first place. Such interpretations of scripture violate the principle laid out in the previous entry in this blog, namely that, since even Jesus did not know when the end will come, but that its coming will be a stealth occurrence, Christians ought not to waste energy speculating about it, but should, instead, concentrate on being the church in the world.  Furthermore, typically, these readings rely on the interpreter disregarding the historical settings and historical references of the biblical texts. In other words, these interpretations require one to ignore or manipulate, the “plain reading” of the biblical text. Therefore, it will be helpful to establish a simple timeline of pertinent events.

586 BCE         – Nebuchadnezzer destroy’s Solomon’s Temple

515 BCE         – Returnees (re)build the “Second” Temple

168 BCE         – Antiochus IV Epiphanes erects statue of Zeus in the Temple

20-19 BCE      – Herod expands the “Second” Temple into a magnificent edifice

52-53 CE         – 2 Thessalonians written

Late 60’s CE   – Gospel of Mark written

70 CE              – Titus destroys Herod’s Temple

80’s-90’s CE   – Gospel of Matthew written

130 CE            – Hadrian builds pagan temple in which he installs statues of Jupiter and of himself on the temple mount

132-135 CE     – Bar Kokhba Revolt

Examination of the four texts that typically form the basis of the expectation of a rebuilt temple demonstrates that this expectation testifies more to the ingenuity of the interpreter than to the content of the biblical text.  In historical order, they are Ezekiel 40-48; Daniel 9:26-27; 2 Thess 2:3-4; and Matt 24:15.

Pre-exilic prophetic books, without exception, warn against the coming crisis involving either the Assyrian (Hosea, Amos, parts of Isaiah) or the Babylonian (the rest) Empires. They also contain texts that proclaim the continuation of God’s relationship with Israel, or part of it, through and beyond the crisis. Several of these texts promise some kind of reconstitution of Israel, although the details vary widely. On the very day of the destruction of Solomon’s temple, Ezekiel had a vision of another temple (40:1) that he describes in nine chapters.  As described, this temple is grander than Solomon’s and Herod’s combined. The Judeans did not follow Ezekiel’s description when they constructed the so-called “Second Temple” and Herod did not follow it either, which leads some to speculate that Ezekiel had a vision of the “third” temple, yet to be built. One notices quickly that many elements of Ezekiel’s plan contravene the Torah’s prescriptions and that the description does not suit a temple built to usher in the acocalypse.  In Ezekiel 43:7, for example, God identifies Ezekiel’s temple as God’s eternal residence, one that will never be defiled by Israel’s sin. Later in the vision Ezekiel (47:1-12) saw a river, too wide to cross, that flowed from threshold of this temple to the Dead Sea bringing it to life again. These hyperbolic/mythic elements raise the question of whether Ezekiel’s vision should be understood as a prediction or as the kind of heavenly vision Micaiah ben Imlah (2 Kgs 23) or Isaiah (chapter 6) had, a vision that reveals the heavenly temple and the new Jerusalem, not plans for a future structure in historical Jerusalem.

Daniel 9:26-27 speaks with the obscurity typical of apocalyptic literature about seventy “weeks of years” (= 490 years) beginning with the announcement calling for the reconstruction of Jerusalem (Edict of Cyrus 539 BCE?). This period ends with the abomination of desolation engineered by a certain “prince.” Interpreters who see this text as evidence for the “third temple” must interpolate an indefinite period into the time scheme outlined in the text, otherwise this abomination of desolation will have occurred before the birth of Jesus. Was there such an “abomination” in the period before Jesus’ birth?  Yes. Antiochus IV Epiphanes triggered the Hasmonean Rebellion with just such an act.  There is no need to stop the clock in the 69th week of years and restart it sometime yet to be evident.

Jesus referred to this Daniel text in his prediction/warning concerning the Jewish Wars that culminated with the destruction of Herod’s temple (Matt 24:15). Interpreters who expect a third temple argue that, since Jesus refers to the “holy place” in this description of the signs of the apocalypse for his disciples, there must be a temple in the period before Jesus’ return. They simply fail to recognize that “this” (the destruction of the temple in 70 CE) is not “that” (the end of the world).  See the previous entry in this blog.

Finally, proponents of the notion that a third temple must be built before the parousia appeal to Paul’s reference to the “lawless one” taking his seat in the temple before the coming of the Lord. Noting that Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians before both the Jewish Wars and the Bar Kochka Rebellion, the nearest candidates for such a “lawless one” would have been Titus or Hadrian. Presumably, Paul had no more information concerning a detailed sequence of the events to lead up to the Parousia than Jesus himself did.

We do not do the Jews any favors by seeking to hasten the final battle, especially not since such efforts rely on such flimsy biblical evidence. Jesus did not know; we do not know.  Jesus was clear, however, when he called for his disciples to work for peace and justice – for Jew, Samaritan, and Gentile alike.

Are “these” days “those” days?

No! Grammar matters!

“Whenever you hear of wars and reports of wars, do not fear. This must be, but it is not yet the end” (Mark 13:7, my trans.)

I hear and read “end times” talk more lately than I have heard it since the late 1960’s and mid-1970’s. In those days of national (think 1968) and international (think 1968 again) turbulence, the MADD doctrine was still the cornerstone of US strategic planning, no one foresaw the possibility that the Iron Curtain would fall, the United States was awkwardly withdrawing from its misadventure in Indo-China, and, at home, the make-love-not-war, bra-burning, draft card-burning, counter-culture was gaining momentum. Many shared the general sense that, with so many areas of imbalance and contention and with such destructive power waiting to be unleashed, catastrophe was only a slight miscalculation away.

In the part of the church where I grew up, that general sense of fear fueled a rampant apocalyptic expectation. Named the “song of the year” at the inaugural GMA Dove Awards in 1969 as recorded by The Oak Ridge Boys, “Jesus is Coming Soon” warned, or celebrated in the opinion of some, that

Jesus is coming soon, morning or night or noon,/many will meet their doom; trumpets will sound./All of the dead shall rise; righteous meet in the skies;/Going where no one dies; heaven-ward bound.

Incidentally, R.E. Winsett wrote this song in 1942, in the midst of WWII, another time characterized by worldwide turmoil and fear. Also incidentally, next year will be the 50th anniversary of that award and Jesus has not come yet.

There can be little wonder that apocalyptic fervor, fanned by radio and TV preachers like Jack van Impe and mega-church pastors like John Hagee, should resurface now. The Arab-Israeli conflict has escaped its bounds. The end of the Cold War has not brought the international stability everyone expected, but given new impetus to nationalism in the regions of the world formerly part of, or under the influence of, the Soviet Union. In many cases, this nationalism and religious fundamentalism have coalesced in reassertions of regional and cultural identity. Instead of stability, the end of the Cold War stalemate has only brought war – civil and regional conflicts fueled by religious, class, and ethnic differences.

Meanwhile, here in the US, we find ourselves engaged in Culture War II.  As was the case with the armistice that ended WWI, the relative cessation of hostilities in the 1980’s and 1990’s did not resolve any of the issues. Now, some see developments like gay marriage rights and the browning of the population as existential threats and feel that the threats must be met with legal (and sometimes actual) force.

Wars and reports of war.

It seems to me that apocalyptic fervor of the pre-millenialist, Darbian, dispensationalist variety contributes to a number of the theological, ethical, and practical errors that I see at work in the part of the American church I know best. Lately, I have heard echoes of this fervor and seen shadows of those errors in other parts of the church, too. Even mainline and “liberal” Protestants sometimes describe the current state of things in “end times” terms.  I plan to devote several entries to discussions of these effects of apocalyptic fervor. First, however, I want to establish what I think is the most fundamental biblical teaching about apocalypticism, namely that Christians should avoid apocalyptic speculation altogether.

My authority for this claim is Jesus, specifically his response to the four leaders among the disciples’ question about the timing of their teacher’s statement concerning the destruction of the Temple. Some information about historical events in Israel just after Jesus will help to set the backgrounds.  Jesus was probably crucified sometime between 29 and 31CE. Already in Jesus’ day, tensions between the Jews in Israel and their Roman occupiers ran very high. By 66 CE, Jews in the province of Judea had broken out in open rebellion against Rome.  The First Jewish-Roman War that ensued (66-72 CE), during which the Romans did, indeed, destroy the Temple in Jerusalem (70 CE), was but the first of three wars fought between Jews and Rome during the century following Jesus’ death. The suicide pact among the leaders of this rebellion occurred in the famed stronghold at Masada. Many Jews, including Jewish Christians, fled Jerusalem at the time. Bar Kochba, the leader of the third of these rebellions (132-135 CE) claimed to be the Messiah, as had many others around the time of Jesus and shortly thereafter. After Rome defeated this third outbreak, it banned Jews from Jerusalem altogether, refounded the city as Aelia Capitolina, a Roman-Hellenistic center, and appropriated the temple site for the worship of Zeus Olympois.

This information already indicates that when Jesus referred to the destruction of the Temple (Mark 13:2), he must have meant the destruction to occur roughly three decades later. Anything Jesus said in the rest of the discourse recorded in what scholars sometimes call the “Markan Apocalypse” in reference to this destruction manifestly does not apply to the apocalypse, therefore, regardless of the nickname scholars give the chapter.

In fact, a careful reader of the Greek text will note quickly that in the discourse Jesus distinguishes between: signs that will presage and accompany “this”/”these” (touto) event(s), for the most part quite carefully (vv 4-23; Jesus uses “those” in vv 17, 19 somewhat imprecisely, it seems, to refer to the “near” event, i.e. the First Jewish War), on the one hand; and characterizations of  “those days, after that tribulation” (v 24, the turning point in the discourse), on the other. In other words, “this” event, the near event that Jesus had in mind was clearly the First Jewish War, when the Romans destroyed the Temple. This war was disastrous, but not the final war to end wars.  Beginning in v 24, Jesus talked about the apocalypse, describing it in terms of cosmic events no one has ever seen.

To summarize, Jesus warned his listeners that their generation (“this generation,” v 30) would live to see the near events – false Messiahs, wars, earthquakes, famines, martyrdoms, betrayals, the desecration of the temple (v 14), false Christs and false prophets – that accompanied the Jewish Wars and preceded the destruction of the Temple. It is important to remember that the question that Jesus answers here has to do with this destruction. As to “that day” and “that hour,” i.e. the apocalyptic end, Jesus asserted, first, that it was not the imminent catastrophe (the Jewish War), and second, that only God the Father knows its date – Jesus did not know, the angels do not know, even Jesus as the apocalyptic Son of Man does not know (v 32). Finally, Jesus insisted, “that day” will dawn without warning – no signs, no indications, no markers.  Thieves in the night seek to surprise; they do not call attention to their approach. Paul, who seems to have known this saying of Jesus, warned, in fact, that, rather than betraying its arrival through signs, the “day of the Lord” will come precisely when least expected, “when they say, ‘peace and security’” (1 Thess 5:3, my trans.).

The signs pointing to the outbreak of the First Jewish War were fulfilled nearly 2,000 years ago. Jesus (and Paul) said that the final day of the Lord will come entirely without warning.

Therefore, my advice to contemporary Christians is the same as Jesus’s to his disciples and Paul’s to the Thessalonians: “Don’t be caught asleep! Get down to the business of living lives of discipleship! Be the church! Harvest because the fields are white!” Take your eyes off the skies and look to the many thirsty who need something to drink! Quit speculating about signs of the end and speak, instead, about the love of God in Jesus Christ that is no speculation.  If Jesus did not know when the end will come, neither do the likes of van Impe and Hagee. (It is good that we no longer stone false prophets, by the way.)

A Series of Biblical Vignettes A Propos Pledging Allegiance

“Seek the welfare of the city” (Jer 29:7)

Christian proponents of a variety of doctrinal statements, ethical stances, and public policy positions often proclaim their viewpoints “biblical” either because they assume that the status quo ante must represent the divine will or because their position seems best to reflect a single biblical passage or a small grouping of passages. One could argue that, Continue reading A Series of Biblical Vignettes A Propos Pledging Allegiance

Perpetual Poverty?

“…you always have the poor…”

(Mark 14:7; Matt 26:11; John 12:8)

The two most recent entries in this blog have examined how people have used poor biblical interpretation of, admittedly, difficult texts to justify and undergird racism and misogyny. This entry turns attention to the ways in which some have perverted a saying of Jesus – who elsewhere called the poor blessed and equated how one treats the poor with Continue reading Perpetual Poverty?

No Stream without a Source

Part II

In the most recent entry in this blog, I reacted to Brent Strawn’s, The Old Testament is Dying: A Diagnosis and Recommended Treatment by offering reflections concerning factors that may contribute to the phenomenon Strawn describes.  This second entry on the subject will examine some of the dangers for believers and for the church inherent in Continue reading No Stream without a Source

To An Unknown God

Acts 17:22-31

Luke’s record of the Apostle Paul’s foray into the philosophy of religion/apologetics (Acts 17:22-31) portrays an approach to evangelism that differed significantly from Paul’s typical practice. Earlier in the chapter, Luke recounts Paul’s visits to the synagogue in Thessalonica, where “as he was accustomed,” Paul argued for faith in Christ based on his Continue reading To An Unknown God

“Whispering Hope”

Heb 11:1

One day early in my teaching career, I was laboring to help students in a small seminar on hermeneutics (the art of interpretation) to understand the logical and grammatical structure of a passage in Paul. As is often the case in Paul’s letters, the issue involved a simple “therefore,” by which Paul argued for the connection between what Christians Continue reading “Whispering Hope”

Confusion: Rights or Love

For God is not a God of confusion but of peace. (1 Cor 14:33 RSV)

Last week’s blog included the sentence:  “Let the cacophony begin.” It has.

I have not intended to focus this blog on politics, but, like Moses’ experience with the burning bush, the current din of confusion in the political realm beckons me to turn aside to listen.  When I do, I hear that a significant component of the confusion involves the mistaken identification of national interests in self-protection with Christian motivations. Continue reading Confusion: Rights or Love

What the world needs now is hesed, sweet hesed…

Matt 5:44-47

I “love” chocolate and I “love” my wife.  Clearly, the word “love” is almost too multivalent to be useful sometimes.

Two days ago, my phone rang at just after 5pm.  It was my youngest son.  He began, “Dad, I’m OK, but….”  My heart sank to my stomach, my pulse quickened, my mind simultaneously imagined possibilities and braced to hear the actual.  He had been rear-ended by a tractor-trailer truck at highway speed on the interstate; his car had rolled and Continue reading What the world needs now is hesed, sweet hesed…

Hermeneutics, Consistency, and “Christian Values”

The concept of “Christian values” is playing a prominent role in the public arena today, but my Facebook® feed lately suggests very little agreement among those who call themselves Christian concerning the identification of these values or the definition of them individually. No one should wonder that people outside the church view it with suspicion Continue reading Hermeneutics, Consistency, and “Christian Values”